相關主題:性別、社會建構論

引自:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=490475220985148&set=a.480371821995488.117817.476190539080283&type=1&theater

1.以幼兒教育方式,給予男女學生相同的方式及環境,降低對任一性別的發展壓抑,足以證明性別差異來自於社會化

2.上述現象,符合社會建構論主張,指男女大不同,來自於社會的文化與環境,造成男女生透過社會互動產生對性別角色的認知,進而影響男女生的行為、思想與表現

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男女平等要從幼兒期開始做起
— 巴黎郊區一所托兒所如何對抗性別刻板印象

性別不平等是從幾歲開始生根的?位於巴黎郊區 Saint Ouen 的 Bourdarias 托兒所認為是從嬰兒床時就開始的,從 2009 年開始,他們成為法國頭一家有策略地對抗歧視的托兒所。

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When does gender inequality take root? In the cot, according to the Bourdarias nursery in Saint Ouen, in the suburbs of Paris, the first infant care centre in France to introduce a policy to combat discrimination in 2009.

上個月法國女權部部長 Najat Vallaud-Belkacem 拜訪這家托兒所,推銷他們領先群倫的照護方針,目前只有 另外一家 Seine-Saint-Denis 採用相同的作法。「如果我們不儘早在刻板形象開始成型時 就加以對抗,我們永遠無法達成性別平等,」Vallau d-Belkacem 這樣說。

Last month France's minister for women's rights, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, visited the nursery to promote this pioneering work. Only one other nursery in Seine-Saint-Denis has launched a similar policy. "We will not achieve equality if we do not combat the construction of stereotypes as early as possible," Vallaud-Belkacem said.

「我們鎖定在給予孩子正確發展的基礎」,托兒所主管 Haude Constantin-Bienaimé 這樣說,「但我們發現,即使非常小的女孩跟男孩,他們對 自己的信心也有落差。」

"We aim to give [children] the foundations to develop properly," says the head of the nursery, Haude Constantin-Bienaimé. "But what we observe is that even very young boys and girls don't have the same degree of self-confidence.

「孩子依靠模仿來學習,周遭大人怎麼做影響非常大」,C onstantin-Bienaimé 接著表示,「我們用自身示範及社會對性別的期待把孩子帶 大-小女孩應該微笑並懂事,小男孩應該要勇敢。」雙親並 不是唯一需要改進的,老師、媒體、文學作品、照護措施及 玩具工業,無一不在用刻板形象轟炸小孩。

"Children develop by imitation, with adults exerting considerable influence," Constantin-Bienaimé suggests. "We bring up our children in line with our own representations and with the expectations society places on each sex. Little girls should smile and be sensible, little boys should be brave." Parents are not the only ones to blame. Teachers, the media, literature, the childcare and toy industries bombard toddlers with stereotypes.

這家托兒所看起來與其他家差別不大,使用常見的玩具。有 區別的是他們用「積極平等的教學方法」來避免把孩子放進 同一個箱子內,例如「粉紅色及茶具組合給女孩」、「藍色 及卡車給男孩」。一位老師 David Helbecque 說「我們儘可能讓玩具保持中性,但我們不會禁止洋娃娃及 玩具車庫」「我們只不過單純地教小女生玩玩具車、發出噪 音、大吼及攀爬,當然玩洋娃娃也很鼓勵。」

The nursery looks much the same as any other, with the usual toys. Without denying differences, its "proactive egalitarian pedagogy" seeks to avoid locking children up in boxes, with pink and tea sets for girls, blue and lorries for boys. "We try to keep toys as neutral as possible, without banning dolls or garages," says David Helbecque, one of the educators. "Simply, we show the young girls that they can play with the toy cars, make a noise, shout and climb. Boys wanting to play with dolls are encouraged too."

「這種教學法的好處是讓每個小孩把判斷什麼是可能的視野 放寬」,專長是兒童與性別關係的里爾第一大學社會學家 Geneviève Cresson 表示,「性別歧視減少了年輕女性的機會,但同時也傷害他 們的男性同伴,被迫積極主動而且要壓抑個人情緒。」

"The merit of this pedagogy is that it enables everyone to broaden the scope of what is possible," says Geneviève Cresson, a sociologist at Lille-1 University and a specialist in children and gender relations. "Gender discrimination reduces the opportunities for young women, but is also damaging for their male counterparts, imposing aggressive behaviour and requiring them to hold back emotion."

每個人都可以使用工藝及烹飪作坊,前者的老師是女生,後 者是男生。所有事情都經過檢視:不管是小孩從事的活動, 還是托兒所大人間的兩性關係,連日常語言也不例外。Cr esson 說「成年人必須格外努力調整自己的行為舉止,才能體會到在對待女孩及男孩時的方式偏差,他們總是以為自己是完全平等對待的」

The craft and cooking workshops are open to all comers. The former is led by a woman, the latter by a man. Everything is vetted: the activities available to children, but also relations between adults of both sexes at the nursery, even everyday language. "Adults need to work hard on their own behaviour to gain an awareness of the biased way they treat girls and boys," Cresson explains. "They're always convinced they are perfectly even-handed."

負責管理 55 間托兒所聯盟的 Seine-Saint-Denis 委員會支持這樣的改變,委員會的領導人 Stéphane Troussel 表示「這是更廣泛作法的一部份,我們在中學有一個對抗性別歧視的方案,有一個暴力欺壓女性的追蹤單位。這不代表這類問題在這裡比其他地方嚴重,我們只是不會去否認這些事情的存在。」

Seine-Saint-Denis council, which manages a network of 55 nurseries, is backing this initiative. "It is part of a broader approach," says council leader Stéphane Troussel. "We have a scheme to combat gender discrimination in secondary schools and an observatory of violence against women. This is not to say that things are any worse here than elsewhere, but we do not want to deny its existence."

Bourdarias 托兒所的作風需要父母的支持,但是來自托兒所所在的社經階層混雜區-資本管理階層及低收入房產的住民可能擦肩而過-的反應非常好,申請要進入托兒所的人數遠超過能夠容納的。

The work at the Bourdarias nursery demands parental support, but the response in this socially mixed area – where executives from the capital rub shoulders with the residents of low-income housing estates – has been positive. The nursery is now heavily oversubscribed.

兒童照護專家深信這樣的策略可以增強兩性間互相尊重,並減少對婦女的暴力行為,但這個策略需要擴大使用範圍,並向上延長到各級學校。Constantin-Bienaimé 說「我們做的不過是在奠定基礎上的一點小貢獻。」

Childcare specialists are convinced that such policies enhance mutual respect between the sexes and can reduce violence against women. But the approach needs to be applied on a larger scale and extended to schools. "We have nevertheless made a small contribution to laying the foundations," says Constantin-Bienaimé.

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